Ancient Roman and Greek Coins:
Coins of the Roman Republic
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi 90 B.C. Denarius Mint: Rome
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right; behind, control-mark; below chin, control-mark. Border of dots.
Reverse: L PISO FRVG[I] R: Horseman right with palm-branch in left hand and reins in right hand; above,
control-mark and control-mark. Border of dots.
References: C.340.1, S.665m, RRC 340/1. 1944.100.81386, C.340.1, S.655a,
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (c. 100 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman statesman and the father-in-law of Julius Caesar through his daughter Calpurnia. He also had a son, Lucius Calpurnius Piso, known as "the Pontifex", who was Consul in 15 BC. He was reportedly a follower of a school of Epicureanism that had been modified to befit politicians, as Epicureanism itself favored withdrawal from politics.
|given to Quintus Ancharius.
Piso's recall was perhaps in consequence of the violent attack made upon
him by Cicero in the Senate in his speech "De provinciis consularibus".
Caesar mentions his father-in-law in his Gallic Commentaries. Piso's grandfather, also named L. Calpurnius Piso, was killed by the same Gauls that Caesar would later conquer.
On his return, Piso addressed the Senate in his defence, and Cicero replied with the coarse and exaggerated invective known as "In Pisonem". Piso issued a pamphlet by way of rejoinder, and there the matter ended. Cicero may have been afraid to bring the father-in-law of Julius Caesar to trial. At the outbreak of the civil war, Piso offered his services as mediator. However, when Caesar marched upon Rome, he left the city by way of protest of Caesar. Piso did not openly declare support for Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and remained neutral but is widely believed he secretly supported Pompey but still did not forfeit the respect of Caesar when Pompey was defeated.
After the murder of Caesar, Piso insisted on the provisions of Caesar's will being strictly carried out and, for a time, he opposed Mark Antony. Subsequently, he became one of Antony's supporters and is mentioned as taking part in an embassy to Antony's camp at Mutina with the object of bringing about a reconciliation with Octavian.
He is believed to have been the owner of the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum.
The maxim fiat justitia ruat caelum ("let justice be done, though the heavens fall"), used by Lord Mansfield in Somerset's Case and in reversing the outlawry of John Wilkes, and in the alternate form fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus by Ferdinand of Habsburg, is sometimes attributed to Piso (more often to Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso), but this is disputed.
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso_Caesoninus_(consul_58_BC)
Moneyer L. Cassius Longinus AR denarius 60 BC.
OBVERSE: Veiled and diademed head of Vesta left, kylix (drinking vessel) behind, letter before
REVERSE: LONGIN III V, togate male figure standing left, dropping voting tablet inscribed V (Vota)
into an urn to left.
Cr. 413/1; Sear 364; Cassia 10; Albert 1330; Syd 935
Gaius Cassius Longinus Varus was a Roman consul in 73 BC (together with
Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus). Cassius and his colleague passed
the lex Terentia Cassia that ordered the state to buy up grain in Sicily
and sell it for a low price in Rome. As proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul
in the next year, 72 BC, during the Third Servile War, Cassius tried to
stop Spartacus and his followers near Mutina (now Modena) as the slave
army was trying to break through to unoccupied Gaul, but suffered defeat
and barely managed to get away alive. Two years later, Cassius appeared
as witness of the prosecution in the trial against the corrupt former governor
of Sicily, Verres. In 66 BC, Cassius supported the Manilian law that
gave command of the war against Mithridates to Pompey; he was joined in
this by Cicero, then praetor, whose famous speech in support of the same
Cassius Longinus may refer to:
Cassius Longinus (philosopher) (c.
213–273), a Greek rhetorician and philosopher
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaius_Cassius_Longinus_Varus#cite_note-5
Roman Republican, Anonymous As. 189-180 BC.
Obverse: Laureate head of Janus; I above / Prow of galley right;
Reverse: Victory and spearhead above, I before, ROMA below.
Crawford 145/1; Sydenham 293; BMCRR 497; Sear 676.
The as (plural asses), also assarius (rendered into Greek as assarion) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
Republican era coinage:
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/As_(Roman_coin)
Q Titius Denarius. 90 BC
Obverse: Head of Mutinus Titinus (Priapus) right, wearing winged diadem
Reverse: Pegasus springing right, Q TITI on base
Cr341/1, Syd 691
Q. Titius is credited with the minting of this coin, but who is on the
obverse side is not a given. Q. Titius minted many coins of this
type in the year 90 BC; during the Social war through Sulla's dictatorship
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severus_Alexander
Obverse : helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
Reverse : the dioscuri right, C. PLUTI. below, ROMA in ex. Ref.
The Roman Republic moneyer C. Plutius is credited with the minting of this
OBVERSE: Diademed head of Venus right
REVERSE: Cupid on dolphin right
The Roman Republic moneyer Cordius Rufus is credited with the minting of this coin.
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus (died December 100 BC) was a Roman populist
and tribune; he was a political ally of Gaius Marius, and his downfall
caused a great deal of political embarrassment for Marius, who absented
himself from public life until he returned to take up a command in the
Social War of 91 to 88 BC.
|Celtic tribes which had been
temporarily occupied by them, should be held available for distribution
among the veterans of Marius. This was problematic, since the land
was already the property of the provincials who had been dispossessed by
Colonies were to be founded in Sicilia, Achaea and Macedonia, on the purchase of which the "Tolosan gold," the temple treasures embezzled by Quintus Servilius Caepio (consul in 106), was to be employed. Further, Italians were to be admitted to these colonies, and as they were to be burgess colonies, the right of the Italians to equality with the Romans was thereby partially recognized. This part of the bill was resented by many citizens, who were unwilling to allow others to share their privileges.
A clause provided that, within 5 days after the passing of the law, every senator should take an oath to observe it, under penalty of being expelled from the senate and heavily fined. All the senators subsequently took the oath except Metellus Numidicus, who went into exile. Saturninus also brought in a bill, the object of which was to gain the support of the people by supplying grain at a nominal price. The quaestor Quintus Servilius Caepio declared that the treasury could not stand the strain, and Saturninus' own colleagues interposed their veto. Saturninus ordered the voting to continue, and Caepio dispersed the meeting by violence. The Senate declared the proceedings null and void, because thunder had been heard; Saturninus replied that the Senate had better remain quiet; otherwise the thunder might be followed by hail. The bills (leges Appuleiae) were finally passed by the aid of the Marian veterans.
Downfall and death:
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Appuleius_Saturninus
Lucius Julius Caesar (ca. 135 BC–87 BC) was a consul of the Roman Republic
in 90 BC. He was involved in the downfall of the plebeian tribune
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus in 100 BC.
He was elected praetor for 94 BC without having been quaestor and aedile. Later he became governor of Macedonia.
During his consulship, he defeated the Samnites. Lucius proposed legislation (one of the Leges Juliae or "Julian laws") granting Roman citizenship to allies who didn’t participate in the Social War against Rome in 90 BC. In 89 he became censor and due to the success of the Julian Law, became responsible for allocating new citizens into voting districts. His colleague in this task was a former consul, Publius Licinius Crassus Dives (consul 97 BC) (father of triumvir, Marcus Licinius Crassus).
Lucius and his brother, Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus, were killed together in 87 BC at the beginning of the Civil War by partisans of Gaius Marius. They died fighting in the streets. According to Livy, their heads were exposed on the speaker’s platform.
His children, by his wife Fulvia, were Lucius Julius Caesar, who was consul in 64 BC, and Julia Antonia.
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Julius_Caesar_(consul_90_BC)
OBVERSE: Laureate head of Apollo right, PANSA behind, control letters S: S:. under chin
REVERSE: Minerva in quadriga right, VIBIVS. C. F in exergue.
Gaius Vibius Caii filius Pansa. One of the first members of the gens Vibius to achieve political success, he was a Novus homo who rose through the cursus honorum as a result of his friendship with Gaius Julius Caesar, under whom he served in Gaul. He was the father of Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (died 23 April 43 BC) who was consul of the Roman Republic in 43 BC. Although supporting Gaius Julius Caesar during the Civil War, his son pushed for the restoration of the Republic upon Caesar’s death. His son died of injuries sustained at the Battle of Forum Gallorum.
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaius_Vibius_Pansa_Caetronianus
L Aemilius Lepidus Paullus AR Denarius. 62 BC
Obverse: Veiled and diademed head of Concordia right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA around
Reverse: ER PAVLVS above and beneath L Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left. Cr415/1, Syd 926
Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (flourished 1st century BC) was the brother
of triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and son to an elder Marcus Aemilius
Lepidus. His mother may have been a daughter of Lucius Appuleius
He supported Cicero during the Catiline Conspiracy and never supported Pompey. Paullus was quaestor in 59 BC, aedile in 55 BC, praetor in 53 BC and consul in 50 BC.
During his consulship, Julius Caesar bribed him for his support. He reconstructed the Basilica Aemilia in Rome, with part of his bribery money.
According to Valerius Maximus: "When the senate decreed that the temples of Isis and Serapis be demolished and none of the workmen dared touch them, consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus took off his official gown, seized an axe, and dashed it against the doors of that temple", (I, 3.3; quoting Julius Paris (translation from Loeb edition).
Paullus opposed the second triumvirate of Octavian, Mark Antony and Paullus' own brother, Marcus Lepidus. He supported Cicero in condemning its members. The triumvirs included him in their proscriptions. However, according to Cassius Dio, his brother allowed him to escape. Lepidus' soldiers left him unhindered. Paullus joined the political rebel Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger and after Brutus' suicide in 42 BC, Paullus was pardoned and lived his remaining years at Miletus.
Paullus' son, Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, was consul in 34 BC, and in 22 BC he shared the office of censor with Augustus.
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Aemilius_Lepidus_Paullus
Anonymous. 115/4 BC. AR Denarius Rome mint
Obverse: Head of Roma right, wearing crested and winged Corinthian helmet;
X (mark of value) behind, ROMA below
Reverse: Roma seated right on pile of shields, wearing Corinthian helmet, holding spear;
bird flying right and left on either side, helmet below, she-wolf suckling the twins before.
Crawford 287/1; Sydenham 530; Kestner 2478; BMCRR Italy 562; RSC 176
In the Roman currency system, the denarius; plural: denari was a small
silver coin first minted about 211 BC during the Second Punic War.
It became the most common coin produced for circulation but was slowly
debased in weight and silver content until its replacement by the double
denarius, called the antoninianus, early in the 3rd century AD. The
word d?n?rius is derived from the Latin d?n? "containing ten", as its value
was 10 ass?s, although in the middle of the 2nd century BC it was recalibrated
so that it was now worth sixteen ass?s or four s?sterti?. It is the
origin of several modern words such as the currency name dinar; it is also
the origin for the common noun for money in Italian denaro, in Portuguese
dinheiro and in Spanish dinero. Its symbol is (X a letter x with stroke).
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denarius
In Roman mythology, Faustulus was the shepherd who found the infants Romulus
and Remus, who were being suckled by a she-wolf, known as Lupa, on the
Palatine Hill. He, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children.
In some versions of the myth, Larentia was a prostitute (in Latin a lupa,
'she-wolf'). The name Faustulus was later claimed by a Roman family,
one of whom minted a coin showing Faustulus with the twins and she-wolf.
Sextus Pompeius Fostlus issued a silver denarius in about 140 BCE that
showed, on the twins and she-wolf with Faustulus to their left.
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faustulus
MARK ANTONY. 32 BC. AR Legionary Denarius
Obverse: ANT AVG. III VIR. R. P. C, galley to the right
Reverse: LEG V, aquila and two legionary standards
Crawford 544/18; Sear, CRI 354; Sydenham 1221; BMCRR (East) 196; RSC 32
Antony's legionary issues are around coin silver purity. US coins
were 90% silver. Here's what Wikipedia has to say: The silver content
during republican times remained well above 90%, usually above 95% with
the exception of Marcus Antonius's later coinage, especially the massive
"legionary" issue of coinage of 32–31 BC just prior to the Battle of Actium
(an example is shown on the right), rumored to be silver from Egypt provided
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Antony
Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals
during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed
administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece,
North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined
forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, and
Octavian, Caesar's nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship
known to historians as the Second Triumvirate. The Triumvirs defeated
Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC,
and divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony
was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of
Egypt, then ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, and was given the command
in Rome's war against Parthia.
Relations among the Triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide.
With Antony dead, Octavian was the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor.
Information was taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at this URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republican_currency
All rights reserved. All designs, images, intellectual properties, writings, drawings, paintings, sculptures , and comedy are the property of Anthong G. Ballatore if not attributed. This webpage is for viewing only. No reproduction rights are granted, licensed, implied, or sanctioned in any form or manner and are hereby exclusively reserved for and by Anthony G. Ballatore. Just ask! "What?"