Commmodus AE21 of Nikopolis ad Istrum
Obverse: Laureate head right
Reverse: NIKOPOLEITWN, she-wolf right suckling Romulus
Moushmov 886, Rare
Commodus, AE 15mm of Nicopolis ad Istrum,
Moesia Inf. circa 177-192 A.D.
Obverse: AVT KAI M AVPH KOMO?OC, Laureate head right.
Reverse: NIKOPOLI PROC ICTRO, She wolf standing right,
suckling Romulus and Remus.
Varbanov 2205; Moushmov 886
Commodus (31 August 161 – 31 December 192), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus
and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman Emperor from AD 180
to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius
from 177 until his father's death in 180.
His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his biological
father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. He was also the first
emperor to have both a father and grandfather (who had adopted his father)
as the two preceding emperors. Commodus was the first (and until
337, the only) emperor "born in the purple", i.e., during his father's
Commodus was assassinated in 192, succeeded by Pertinax whose reign did
not last long during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors.
Early life and rise to power (161–180)
Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161, as Commodus, in Lanuvium, near Rome.
He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius'
first cousin, Faustina the Younger; the youngest daughter of Roman Emperor
Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before. Commodus had
an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165.
On 12 October 166, Commodus was made Caesar together with his younger brother,
Marcus Annius Verus. The latter died in 169 having failed to recover
from an operation, which left Commodus as Marcus Aurelius' sole surviving
He was looked after by his father's physician, Galen, in order to keep
Commodus healthy and alive. Galen treated many of Commodus' common
illnesses. Commodus received extensive tutoring by a multitude of teachers
with a focus on intellectual education. Among his teachers Onesicrates,
Antistius Capella, Titus Aius Sanctus, and Pitholaus are mentioned.
Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, the headquarters of Marcus
Aurelius during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there
that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus, in
the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present
at his father's victory over the Marcomanni. On 20 January 175, Commodus
entered the College of Pontiffs, the starting point of a career in public
In April 175, Avidius Cassius, Governor of Syria, declared himself Emperor
following rumours that Marcus Aurelius had died. Having been accepted
as Emperor by Syria, Judea and Egypt, Cassius carried on his rebellion
even after it had become obvious that Marcus was still alive. During
the preparations for the campaign against Cassius, the Prince assumed his
toga virilis on the Danubian front on 7 July 175, thus formally entering
adulthood. Cassius, however, was killed by one of his centurions
before the campaign against him could begin.
Commodus subsequently accompanied his father on a lengthy trip to the Eastern
provinces, during which he visited Antioch. The Emperor and his son
then traveled to Athens, where they were initiated into the Eleusinian
mysteries. They then returned to Rome in the Autumn of 176.
Joint rule with father (177):
Marcus Aurelius was the first emperor since Vespasian to have a legitimate
biological son and, though he himself was the fifth in the line of the
so-called Five Good Emperors, each of whom had adopted his successor, it
seems to have been his firm intention that Commodus should be his heir.
On 27 November 176, Marcus Aurelius granted Commodus the rank of Imperator
and, in the middle of 177, the title Augustus, giving his son the same
status as his own and formally sharing power.
On 23 December of the same year, the two Augusti celebrated a joint triumph,
and Commodus was given tribunician power. On 1 January 177, Commodus became
consul for the first time, which made him, aged 15, the youngest consul
in Roman history up to that time. He subsequently married Bruttia
Crispina before accompanying his father to the Danubian front once more
in 178, where Marcus Aurelius died on 17 March 180, leaving the 18-year-old
Commodus sole emperor.
Solo reign (180–192):
Upon his ascension, Commodus devalued the Roman currency. He reduced
the weight of the denarius from 96 per Roman pound to 105 (3.85 grams to
3.35 grams). He also reduced the silver purity from 79 percent to
76 percent – the silver weight dropping from 2.57 grams to 2.34 grams.
In 186 he further reduced the purity and silver weight to 74 percent and
2.22 grams respectively, being 108 to the Roman pound. His reduction
of the denarius during his rule was the largest since the empire's first
devaluation during Nero's reign.
Whereas the reign of Marcus Aurelius had been marked by almost continuous
warfare, that of Commodus was comparatively peaceful in the military sense
but was marked by political strife and the increasingly arbitrary and capricious
behaviour of the emperor himself. In the view of Dio Cassius, a contemporary
observer of the period, his accession marked the descent "from a kingdom
of gold to one of iron and rust" – a famous comment which has led some
historians, notably Edward Gibbon, to take Commodus' reign as the beginning
of the decline of the Roman Empire.
Despite his notoriety, and considering the importance of his reign, Commodus'
years in power are not well chronicled. The principal surviving literary
sources are Dio Cassius (a contemporary and sometimes first-hand observer,
but for this reign, only transmitted in fragments and abbreviations), Herodian
and the Historia Augusta (untrustworthy for its character as a work of
literature rather than history, with elements of fiction embedded within
its biographies; in the case of Commodus, it may well be embroidering upon
what the author found in reasonably good contemporary sources).
Commodus remained with the Danube armies for only a short time before negotiating
a peace treaty with the Danubian tribes. He then returned to Rome
and celebrated a triumph for the conclusion of the wars on 22 October 180.
Unlike the preceding Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus
Aurelius, he seems to have had little interest in the business of administration
and tended throughout his reign to leave the practical running of the state
to a succession of favourites, beginning with Saoterus, a freedman from
Nicomedia who had become his chamberlain.
Dissatisfaction with this state of affairs would lead to a series of conspiracies
and attempted coups, which in turn eventually provoked Commodus to take
charge of affairs, which he did in an increasingly dictatorial manner.
Nevertheless, though the senatorial order came to hate and fear him, the
evidence suggests that he remained popular with the army and the common
people for much of his reign, not least because of his lavish shows of
largesse (recorded on his coinage) and because he staged and took part
in spectacular gladiatorial combats.
One of the ways he paid for his donatives and mass entertainments was to
tax the senatorial order, and on many inscriptions, the traditional order
of the two nominal powers of the state, the Senate and People (Senatus
Populusque Romanus) is provocatively reversed (Populus Senatusque...).
Conspiracies of 182:
At the outset of his reign, Commodus, aged 18, inherited many of his father's
senior advisers, notably Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus (the second husband
of Commodus' sister Lucilla), his father-in-law Gaius Bruttius Praesens,
Titus Fundanius Vitrasius Pollio, and Aufidius Victorinus, who was Prefect
of the City of Rome. He also had four surviving sisters, all of them
with husbands who were potential rivals. His eldest sister, Lucilla,
was over ten years his senior and held the rank of Augusta as the widow
of her first husband, Lucius Verus.
The first crisis of the reign came in 182, when Lucilla engineered a conspiracy
against her brother. Her motive is alleged to have been envy of the
Empress Crispina. Her husband, Pompeianus, was not involved, but
two men alleged to have been her lovers, Marcus Ummidius Quadratus Annianus
(the consul of 167, who was also her first cousin) and Appius Claudius
Quintianus, attempted to murder Commodus as he entered a theater.
They bungled the job and were seized by the emperor's bodyguard.
Quadratus and Quintianus were executed. Lucilla was exiled to Capri
and later killed. Pompeianus retired from public life. One
of the two praetorian prefects, Tarrutenius Paternus, had actually been
involved in the conspiracy but his involvement was not discovered until
later on, and in the aftermath, he and his colleague, Sextus Tigidius Perennis,
were able to arrange for the murder of Saoterus, the hated chamberlain.
Commodus took the loss of Saoterus badly, and Perennis now seized the chance
to advance himself by implicating Paternus in a second conspiracy, one
apparently led by Publius Salvius Julianus, who was the son of the jurist
Salvius Julianus and was betrothed to Paternus' daughter. Salvius
and Paternus were executed along with a number of other prominent consulars
and senators. Didius Julianus, the future emperor and a relative
of Salvius Julianus, was dismissed from the governorship of Germania Inferior.
Perennis took over the reins of government and Commodus found a new chamberlain
and favourite in Cleander, a Phrygian freedman who had married one of the
emperor's mistresses, Demostratia. Cleander was in fact the person
who had murdered Saoterus. After those attempts on his life, Commodus
spent much of his time outside Rome, mostly on the family estates at Lanuvium.
Being physically strong, his chief interest was in sport: taking part in
horse racing, chariot racing, and combats with beasts and men, mostly in
private but also on occasion in public.
Dacia and Britain:
Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul with Aufidius Victorinus for
a colleague and assumed the title Pius. War broke out in Dacia: few
details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne,
Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in
the campaign. Also, in Britain in 184, the governor Ulpius Marcellus
re-advanced the Roman frontier northward to the Antonine Wall, but the
legionaries revolted against his harsh discipline and acclaimed another
legate, Priscus, as emperor.
Priscus refused to accept their acclamations, but Perennis had all the
legionary legates in Britain cashiered. On 15 October 184 at the
Capitoline Games, a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before
Commodus, who was watching, but was immediately put to death. According
to Dio Cassius, Perennis, though ruthless and ambitious, was not personally
corrupt and generally administered the state well.
However, the following year, a detachment of soldiers from Britain (they
had been drafted to Italy to suppress brigands) also denounced Perennis
to the emperor as plotting to make his own son emperor (they had been enabled
to do so by Cleander, who was seeking to dispose of his rival), and Commodus
gave them permission to execute him as well as his wife and sons.
The fall of Perennis brought a new spate of executions: Aufidius Victorinus
committed suicide. Ulpius Marcellus was replaced as governor of Britain
by Pertinax; brought to Rome and tried for treason, Marcellus narrowly
Cleander's zenith and fall (185–190):
Cleander proceeded to concentrate power in his own hands and to enrich
himself by becoming responsible for all public offices: he sold and bestowed
entry to the Senate, army commands, governorships and, increasingly, even
the suffect consulships to the highest bidder. Unrest around the
empire increased, with large numbers of army deserters causing trouble
in Gaul and Germany. Pescennius Niger mopped up the deserters in
Gaul in a military campaign, and a revolt in Brittany was put down by two
legions brought over from Britain.
In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending
to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March,
but he was betrayed and executed. In the same year, Pertinax unmasked
a conspiracy by two enemies of Cleander – Antistius Burrus (one of Commodus'
brothers-in-law) and Arrius Antoninus. As a result, Commodus appeared
even more rarely in public, preferring to live on his estates.
Early in 188, Cleander disposed of the current praetorian prefect, Atilius
Aebutianus, and himself took over supreme command of the Praetorians at
the new rank of a pugione ("dagger-bearer") with two praetorian prefects
subordinate to him. Now at the zenith of his power, Cleander continued
to sell public offices as his private business. The climax came in
the year 190, which had 25 suffect consuls – a record in the 1,000-year
history of the Roman consulship—all appointed by Cleander (they included
the future Emperor Septimius Severus).
In the spring of 190, Rome was afflicted by a food shortage, for which
the praefectus annonae Papirius Dionysius, the official actually in charge
of the grain supply, contrived to lay the blame on Cleander. At the
end of June, a mob demonstrated against Cleander during a horse race in
the Circus Maximus: he sent the praetorian guard to put down the disturbances,
but Pertinax, who was now City Prefect of Rome, dispatched the Vigiles
Urbani to oppose them. Cleander fled to Commodus, who was at Laurentum
in the house of the Quinctilii, for protection, but the mob followed him
calling for his head.
At the urging of his mistress Marcia, Commodus had Cleander beheaded and
his son killed. Other victims at this time were the praetorian prefect
Julius Julianus, Commodus' cousin Annia Fundania Faustina, and his brother-in-law
Mamertinus. Papirius Dionysius was executed too.
The emperor now changed his name to Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. At
29, he took over more of the reins of power, though he continued to rule
through a cabal consisting of Marcia, his new chamberlain Eclectus, and
the new praetorian prefect Quintus Aemilius Laetus, who about this time
also had many Christians freed from working in the mines in Sardinia.
Marcia, the widow of Quadratus, who had been executed in 182, is alleged
to have been a Christian.
In opposition to the Senate, in his pronouncements and iconography, Commodus
had always laid stress on his unique status as a source of god-like power,
liberality and physical prowess. Innumerable statues around the empire
were set up portraying him in the guise of Hercules, reinforcing the image
of him as a demigod, a physical giant, a protector and a battler against
beasts and men (see "Commodus and Hercules" and "Commodus the Gladiator"
below). Moreover, as Hercules, he could claim to be the son of Jupiter,
the representative of the supreme god of the Roman pantheon. These
tendencies now increased to megalomaniacal proportions. Far from
celebrating his descent from Marcus Aurelius, the actual source of his
power, he stressed his own personal uniqueness as the bringer of a new
order, seeking to re-cast the empire in his own image.
During 191, the city of Rome was extensively damaged by a fire that raged
for several days, during which many public buildings including the Temple
of Pax, the Temple of Vesta and parts of the imperial palace were destroyed.
Perhaps seeing this as an opportunity, early in 192 Commodus, declaring
himself the new Romulus, ritually re-founded Rome, renaming the city Colonia
Lucia Annia Commodiana. All the months of the year were renamed to
correspond exactly with his (now twelve) names: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius,
Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus,
Felix, Pius. The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which
imported grain from Africa was termed Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the
Senate was entitled the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the
Roman people themselves were all given the name Commodianus, and the day
on which these reforms were decreed was to be called Dies Commodianus.
Thus he presented himself as the fountainhead of the Empire and Roman life
and religion. He also had the head of the Colossus of Nero adjacent
to the Colosseum replaced with his own portrait, gave it a club and placed
a bronze lion at its feet to make it look like Hercules Romanus, and added
an inscription boasting of being "the only left-handed fighter to conquer
twelve times one thousand men".
In November 192, Commodus held Plebeian Games, in which he shot hundreds
of animals with arrows and javelins every morning, and fought as a gladiator
every afternoon, winning all the bouts. Also in December he announced
his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on
At this point, the prefect Laetus formed a conspiracy with Eclectus to
supplant Commodus with Pertinax, taking Marcia into their confidence.
On 31 December Marcia poisoned his food but he vomited up the poison; so
the conspirators sent his wrestling partner Narcissus to strangle him in
his bath. Upon his death, the Senate declared him a public enemy
(a de facto damnatio memoriae) and restored the original name to the city
of Rome and its institutions. Commodus' statues were thrown down.
His body was buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian. In 195 the emperor
Septimius Severus, trying to gain favour with the family of Marcus Aurelius,
rehabilitated Commodus' memory and had the Senate deify him.
Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short lived, being
the first to fall victim to the Year of the Five Emperors. Commodus'
death marked the end of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty.
Character and physical prowess
Character and motivations:
Cassius Dio, a first-hand witness, describes him as "not naturally wicked
but, on the contrary, as guileless as any man that ever lived. His
great simplicity, however, together with his cowardice, made him the slave
of his companions, and it was through them that he at first, out of ignorance,
missed the better life and then was led on into lustful and cruel habits,
which soon became second nature."
His recorded actions do tend to show a rejection of his father's policies,
his father's advisers, and especially his father's austere lifestyle, and
an alienation from the surviving members of his family. It seems
likely that he was brought up in an atmosphere of Stoic asceticism, which
he rejected entirely upon his accession to sole rule.
After repeated attempts on Commodus' life, Roman citizens were often killed
for making him angry. One such notable event was the attempted extermination
of the house of the Quinctilii. Condianus and Maximus were executed
on the pretext that, while they were not implicated in any plots, their
wealth and talent would make them unhappy with the current state of affairs.
Changes of name:
On his accession as sole ruler, Commodus added the name Antoninus to his
official nomenclature, presumably to honor his grandfather, Antoninus Pius.
In October 180 he changed his praenomen from Lucius to Marcus, presumably
in honour of his father. He later took the title of Felix in 185.
In 191 he restored his praenomen to Lucius and added the family name Aelius,
apparently linking himself to Hadrian and Hadrian's adopted son Lucius
Aelius Caesar, whose original name was also Commodus.
Later that year he dropped Antoninus and adopted as his full style Lucius
Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus Herculeus Romanus Exsuperatorius Amazonius
Invictus Felix Pius (the order of some of these titles varies in the sources).
"Exsuperatorius" (the supreme) was a title given to Jupiter, and "Amazonius"
identified him again with Hercules.
An inscribed altar from Dura-Europos on the Euphrates shows that Commodus'
titles and the renaming of the months were disseminated to the furthest
reaches of the Empire; moreover, that even auxiliary military units received
the title Commodiana, and that Commodus claimed two additional titles:
Pacator Orbis (pacifier of the world) and Dominus Noster (Our Lord).
The latter eventually would be used as a conventional title by Roman emperors,
starting about a century later, but Commodus seems to have been the first
to assume it.
Commodus and Hercules:
Disdaining the more philosophic inclinations of his father, Commodus was
extremely proud of his physical prowess. The historian Herodian, a contemporary,
described Commodus as an extremely handsome man. As mentioned above,
he ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with
a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation
of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing
in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. He was left-handed
and very proud of the fact. Cassius Dio and the writers of the Augustan
History say that Commodus was a skilled archer, who could shoot the heads
off ostriches in full gallop, and kill a panther as it attacked a victim
in the arena.
Commodus the gladiator:
Commodus also had a passion for gladiatorial combat, which he took so far
as to take to the arena himself, dressed as a gladiator. The Romans
found Commodus' naked gladiatorial combats to be scandalous and disgraceful.
It was rumoured that he was actually the son, not of Marcus Aurelius, but
of a gladiator whom his mother Faustina had taken as a lover at the coastal
resort of Caieta.
In the arena, Commodus always won since his opponents always submitted
to the emperor. Thus, these public fights would not end in death.
Privately, it was his custom to slay his practice opponents. For
each appearance in the arena, he charged the city of Rome a million sesterces,
straining the Roman economy.
Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules
persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would
be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Citizens
of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the
arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death
while pretending they were giants. These acts may have contributed
to his assassination.
Commodus was also known for fighting exotic animals in the arena, often
to the horror of the Roman people. According to Gibbon, Commodus
once killed 100 lions in a single day. Later, he decapitated a running
ostrich with a specially designed dart and afterwards carried the bleeding
head of the dead bird and his sword over to the section where the Senators
sat and gesticulated as though they were next. Dio notes that the
targeted senators actually found this more ridiculous than frightening,
and chewed on laurel leaves to conceal their laughter. On another
occasion, Commodus killed three elephants on the floor of the arena by
himself. Finally, Commodus killed a giraffe, which was considered
to be a strange and helpless beast.
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